The Intermittent Fasting Podcast
The Intermittent Fasting Podcast

Episode 1 · 2 months ago

#281 - Myth Busting, Fasting Research, Fat Burning, Inflammatory Markers, Media Spin On Studies, Early Vs. Late Night Eating, And More!

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1:10 - LMNT: For A Limited Time Go To Drinklmnt.Com/Ifpodcast To Get A FREE Sample Pack With Any Purchase! Learn All About Electrolytes In Episode 237 - Our Interview With Robb Wolf!

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26:00 - Listener Q&A: Knowles - Myth Busting

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Welcome to episode two hundred and eighty one of the intermittent fasting podcast. If you want to burn fat, Gain Energy and enhance your health by changing when you eat, not what you eat, with no Gallori counting, then this show is for you. I'm Melanie Avalon, Bio Hacker and author of what when wine? Lose weight and feel great with Paleo style meals, intermittent fasting and wine, and I'm here with my co host, Cynthia There Lowe, a nurse practitioner and author of intermittent fasting transformation the day program for women to lose stubborn weight, improve hormonal health and slow aging. For more on US, check out I F PODCAST DOT COM, Melanie avalon DOT COM and Cynthia their low dot com. Please remember the thoughts and opinions on this show do not constitute medical advice or treatment and no doctor patient relationship is formed. So pour yourself a Mug of black coffee, a cup of tea or even a glass of wine, if it's that time, and get ready for the intermitted fasting podcast. Hi Friends, I'm about to tell you how you can get my favorite electrolytes for free, yes, completely free, and the feedback we have received about element electrolytes from our audience is overwhelming. You guys love element and I'm so excited because our new offer allows new and returning customers to get free element and on top of that, they're super popular. Grape fruit flavor is back. If you've been having issues with intermitted fasting, electrolytes may just be the thing that you need. And or have you heard of something called the Keto flu? Here's the thing. The keto flu is not actually a condition. Keto flu just refers to a bundle of symptoms headaches, fatigue, muscle cramps and insomnia, the people experience in the early stages of Keto dieting. Here's what's going on. When you eat a low carb diet, your insulin levels drop. Low Insulin in turn lowers the production of the hormone aldosterone. Now aldosterone is making the kidneys and it helps you retain sodium. So low aldosterone on a Keto Diet makes you lose sodium at a rapid rate and even if you are consciously consuming electrolytes, you might not be getting enough. In particular, you need electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium, in order for nerve impulses to properly fire. ELECTROLYTES can easily be depleted while intermittent fasting. Rob Wolfe, who, as you guys know, is my hero in the holistic health world, worked with the guys at Keto gains to get the exact formulation for electrolytes supplements to formulate element recharge so you can maintain ketosis and feel your best. Element recharge has no sugar, no coloring, no artificial ingredients, no junk. They're used by three navy seals teams. They are the official hydration partner to team USA weightlifting. They're used by multiple NFL teams and so much more. And we have an incredible offer just for our listeners. You can get a free element sample pack that includes all eight flavors, citrus, watermelon, orange, raspberry, mango, Chili, lemon, Haban, arrow, chocolate and raw unflavored. And the RAW unflavored, by the way, is clean, fast friendly. You can try them all completely free when you make a purchase at our link, drink L M and T DOT COM forward slash I F podcast. You can get this offer as a first time and as a returning element customer, and I know there are a lot of returning element customers. The feedback I hear from you guys loving element is amazing. Element offers no questions asked about refunds on all orders. You won't even have to send it back, and this offer is exclusively available only through v I P element partners. You won't find this offer publicly anywhere else. So again, the link is drink L M and T DOT COM forward slash.

I have podcast and we'll put all this information in the show notes. And one more thing before we jump in. Are you fasting clean inside and out? So, when it comes to weight loss, we focus a lot on what and when we eat. It makes sense, because these foods affect our hormones and how our bodies store and burn fat. But do you know what is possibly one of the most influential factors in weight gain? And it's not your food and it's not fasting, it's actually our skincare and makeup. So, as it turns out, Europe has banned over a thousand compounds found in conventional skincare and makeup in the US due to their toxicity. These include endocrintice ruptors, which mess with your hormones, carcinogens linked to cancer and obesigens, which literally can cause your body to store and gain weight. Basically, when we're using conventional skincare and makeup, we are giving these obesigenic compounds direct access to our bloodstream and then in our bodies. Studies have shown they do things like reduce our satiety hormones, increase our hunger hormones, make fat cells more likely to store fat and more resistant to burning fat, and so much more. If you have stubborn fat friends, your skincare and makeup maybe playing a role in that. Beyond weight gain and weight loss, these compounds have very detrimental effects on our health and they affect the health of our future generations. That's because, ladies, when we have babies, a huge percent of those toxic compounds go through the placenta into the newborn. It is so, so shocking, and the effects last for years. Conventional Lipstick, for example, often tests high and lead, and the half life of lead is up to thirty years. That means when you put on some conventional lipstick thirty years later, maybe half of that lead has left your bones. On top of that, there is essentially no regulation of these products. On the shelves. That's why it's up to us to choose brands that are changing this. The brand that is working the hardest to do this is beauty counter. They were founded on a mission to change this. Every single ingredient is extensively tested to be safe for your skin in so you can truly feel good about what you put on and friends, these products really, really work. They are incredible. They have counter time for anti aging, countermatch for normal skin, counter control for acne and oily prone and counterstart for sensitive I use their overnight re surfacing peel and vitamin C serum every single night of my life, and their makeup is amazing. Check on my instagram to see what it looks like. Tina Fey even wore all beauty counter makeup when she hosted the Golden Globes. So yes, it is high definition camera ready. They have so many other products, deodorant, shampoo and conditioner that I love, products for babies and so much more. You can shop with us at beauty counter dot com slash Melanie avalon or beauty counter dot com slash Cynthia thre low, and you see Coupon Code Clean for all twenty to get off your first order. Also, make sure to get on my clean beauty email list. That's at Melanie avalon dot com slash clean beauty. I give away a lot of free things on that list, so definitely check it out. And you can join me in my facebook group clean uty and safe skincare with Melanie Avalon. People share their experiences, ask questions, give product reviews and I do a giveaway every single week in that group as well. And lastly, if you're thinking of making clean beauty and safe skincare a part of your future, like we have, we definitely recommend becoming a band of beauty member. It's sort of like the Amazon prime for clean beauty. You get tim percent back in product credit, free shipping on qualifying orders and a welcome gift that it's worth way more than the price of the year long membership. It is totally completely worth it. So again, to shop with us, go to beauty counter dot com slash Melanie avalon or beauty counter dot com slash Cynthia. There low and you see Coupon Code Clean for all twenty to get off your first order, and we'll put all this information in the show notes. All right. Now back to the show. Hi everybody and welcome. This is episode number two, hundred and eighty one of the intermittent fasting podcast. I'm Melanie Avalon and I'm here with Cynthia. They're low. Hello, they're my friend. How are you today, Cynthia? It's been a while. Yeah, I'm doing well, because it's it's like hard for me to say this, but my kids are all...

...going to be in high school as of next week. They're going back to school two different schools, but yeah, we're we're in that mode of back to school shopping and supply purchases and new computers and it's just hard to believe the summer is effectively over for them. So this is actually a mind blown moment for me. So when I was in high school I was like the only person I brought a laptop to class, like nobody had laptops. All the kids use laptops now. Well, it's interesting. So my youngest is going to a magnet high school and they require laptops, so we had to purchase one for him and my other son, who goes to the local public high school. They are supplied with chromebooks, which is kind of like a laptop, and that's what they utilize. But I'm actually giving my oldest son my apple because I'm going to get a new laptop and so he'll have that that he can used for school. But yeah, it depends on where you're in school, like the stem focused magnet schools and like the school where my younger son is going. They require them because they want them to be able to work from anywhere, not from the perspective of seven like a lot of adults do, but they allow them to have a lot of freedom during the course of their day and so they like them tethered, not tethered to an outlet that they can just, you know, get up and use their laptop anywhere outside, inside, in the lounges, etcetera. It's just so funny to think about how things have changed because literally, literally, I was the only person and I brought a laptop two. I had to get permission to do it and they were fine, but it was because I was like it's so much more efficient for me to type my notes during a lecture than write them, because I ended up retyping them. Anyways, I'll really date myself here. When I went to college, there were three of us in college at the same time. So, and back then computers were super expensive, like prohibitively expensive, and so I had a word processor. So I'm sure there are probably some listeners who remember what that was. But I had a word processor, not even a computer. I didn't have a computer until I went to graduate school and I think it was even like a hand me down like Imac that my mom had. So yeah, fast facts. Things have been changing absolutely. So I have an interesting experience to share with listeners. I actually how long have you had an or ring? Cynthia? A little more than a year. It might be about a year and a half. Okay, so I've had mine about two years. So I can verify on it that I got sick for the first time last week, with the exception of covid. I don't really count covid. I haven't gotten sick in at least two years and I don't remember getting sick like before my or ring like so I think it's probably been about three years of getting sick non covid. I had a fever and chills, and it's so funny. I was so excited, not excited, but that night that it hit me. I was like, I can't wait to wake up and look at my or ring and see if it knows that I'm sick. I did and it my score was awful and it knew that's what I was able to look back through the data and see if I'd had a fever at all in the past two years. But what's interesting is the very next day I was completely back to normal HRV wise, readiness score wise, and I've actually been better since before getting sick. But I have been so tired it's like I'm experiencing the the covid fatigue that people talk about, but I didn't have covid because I tested. I didn't have covid this time around. Some things I've noticed during this experience to share with listeners is one, for people who take my Sara Pep taste, I'm kind of blown away because my memories of being sick are congestion and, you know, running nose and not being able to breathe, and interestingly, I haven't had barely any of that. Like I know it's all there, but the Sara pep taste just keep me so clear. So I've been so,...

...so grateful for that. And then secondly, I mean it's a little bit disconcerting that I'm still really tired. Like normally, I like I've been canceling everything, calls, going out with friends. Normally I do business calls when I'm running errands, and I haven't been doing any of those because I've been like I can't run an errand and talk on the phone at the same time. So I've been scratching my head about what to do. So I was talking with my friend James Clement, who wrote a book called the switch, and actually Morgan Levine talks about him in her book as well, who I interviewed and who you are interviewing in an upcoming episode. She was amazing. So I've been talking to him about what to do and he keeps saying like that I should hide dose in a men and Cynthia, do you take in our INN Amn, I don't. And admittedly, and I'll be fully transparent, I don't feel like I know enough about the better brands for those products. I think that's really what it comes down to, because I know there's a lot of smoke and mirrors in the supplement industry and for full disclosure, I usually just lean on Melanie's recommendations if it's something I don't know a lot about him. Like what would melanie do? It's so funny. Yeah, well, especially within our NIMN. So, for listeners who are not familiar, there's something called in a D in our body, and Peter Atia, did you listen to his episode? He recently did an episode with a guest expert in Inn a D. It's on my list, but it's like I really have to set aside the time. Like I've been listening to the Hooberman and a Tilla podcasts and since it's like more than two hours, it's been like to gym workouts and I'm still, I still not done with it. We talked about this. So you listen to podcasts while working out? I do. I do, or books. It depends on my mood, but lately it's been I've been getting back to podcasting. I have to do music if I'm at the gym. I listen at night, usually to podcasts, but he did do a recent dive into an a d. So in any case, in a D it's kind of like how I keep talking about magnesium being the master mineral in the body. In a D is basically the master co enzyme in the body. Literally involved and everything. So it's in all of the cells and there's some theories out there and talking to James this is his theory that, especially with like Covid, that post covid fatigue and like long covid might be due to depleted in a D in the body. And we see with age that an a D actually goes down as well, and so a lot of scientists also think a lot of aging effects are due to depleted an a d. So keeping your n a D topped up is super important. But you can't take an a D as a supplement, but you can take the precursors, which are Animan and in R, and there's been so much debate about which version is better and, like you just said, Cynthia, especially with an a D and N R, a lot of just sketchiness in that industry. So I've been historically taking both and kind of experimenting, and I think I can announce this. Announced before that we were going to make an Anaman at avalon x and then we couldn't because it's in the gray zone with the F D a. But things are changing, so I probably will be releasing an Niman upcoming sort of soon, which I am so thrilled about. So, needless to say, I was talking with James and his direct quote to me was do not underestimate the effect of high dosing an Aman. What he actually does. He has a lab. He made his name by doing work on the bloodwork of Super Centenarians and now he does a lot of anti aging lab work and he's literally testing like Animan and a d and stuff like that in his lab all the time. So He's been helping me figure out a dosing schedule. So I started high dosing the Animan that I'm taking right now two nights ago and I actually did start feeling a little bit better, and today's the first day I feel like this is not wearing me out right now to talk, and I took so much innim in last night and I think it's so important I actually over the next four days.

I said you can't take an a D as a supplement, but you can as an I v or as an intermuscular injection. So right after this I'm going to go get an n a d injection and then I have two I v scheduled and then another injection. I mean, I can't keep being sick this long. This is not. I'm like not down with this. That was a lot. But basically, listeners, I think an a D is so so important. Stay tuned because hopefully I'll be releasing my own eneman soon, so for updates on that. Definitely got on the email list. That's an avalon x dot US slash email list. Avalon x dot us is also where the SERAPEC tases and the magnesum and the cupon Code Melanie Avalon gets you, Tim Person Off. But I just share all of that because I mean, I love these supplements, but getting sick has made me realize it's when you're sick that you realize what's important to you. So that was a long speel. But you got sick sort of recently, right, laryngitis. When I came back from Europe, I was convinced I must have had covid because I spent two days in bed and then I was like, if I don't have covid, I must have flu, and I kept coming up negative for both. But I started a whole regiment of, you know, high dose vitamin A, vitamin A, vitamin D, a, slew of other things that thankfully my physician friends called in for me and I felt better usually within a day and a half, but my orror ring, the day before I started feeling poorly, was already telling me something was brewing and it stayed abnormal for like four or five days and then I went back to normal. So I don't I don't know what I had, but I do I do think for all of us, you know, we lean into the narrative that Oh, it has to be Covid, and I just think you can get an apparent virus. There are other things. Sorry, I'm so glad you said that. It means interrupt because so many people I've talked to you, they're like, oh, it's probably covid. I'm like, well, I had covid. I tested this time around. It was negative, and they're like, oh, but it's probably sell covid. Like, guys, there are other viruses besides covid and unfortunately that's the mentality is, ooh, if you get sick now, you can't just have like a common cold virus. What happens to all the other coronaviruses? Like it's covid nineteen, because there are a lot of other coronavirus is right, and certainly you know we went from we had three. You know, we flew from Budapest to Amsterdam, ran through an airport, I'm not kidding, rand sprinted to our flight to Boston, Boston to our home, and so I was like, who knows what I got exposed to, even though you know, travel to me is generally pretty enjoyable. But you know your immune function can be impacted by a lot of things and certainly you know six hours ahead, you know that the net impact of time differences and things you get exposed to while you're traveling and the stress of traveling. Let's be honest, it's not it's not stress free. I'm I'm mentally gearing up for three, three trips I have back to back instead timber into early October, and I was telling my husband like in between the L A and Scottsdale trip, I think I'm home for two days and I'm like, Oh, I'm gonna be like really hunkered down. It's an introvert in between those big trips. So yeah, there's a lot that goes into it and not every viral illness is the pandemic bug. It could very well be just a latent the nine summer virus that people used to never think twice about. I'm so glad you said that, because it's like everything's covid now, right, and it doesn't have debate, and that's actually like I I had, you know, in between my trip and then I had a week at home and then I went to a business trip in Austin and I felt like I did tell every single person I saw that I tested four times for covid only because I wanted to be able to demonstrate I really didn't have it, not because I thought I had it. But it's it's now become an expectation that people are hyper sensitive, hyper away are too. You...

...know what is now an endemic virus. And so you know, the joke is amongst my eer medicine friends the only people that don't have covid the ones who haven't tested, meaning you probably have had it. You may just have a really mild cage. You may not have tested anyway. I don't want to dive down that rabbit hole, but the point is not every not every viral illness is covid, or flu for that matter, exactly. So definitely been an experience and I'm really excited to see again. So the high dos Andement is helping, but I'm really excited to see over these next four days with the n a d if that just, you know, gets rid of the fatigue, although I've heard that the ivy can be a very unpleasant experience. So we'll see if I will see if I make it through that. Oh and last thing, I had a call with or rain yesterday. Listeners, I might have a code soon. Finally, finally, so stay tuned for that. People ask me for a code like every day in my life. I actually have a a orror ring code with your name. How did they sound? It'sn't so. It's it's people get money off and they get six months of free service. What like a Cynthiataur Lowe Code? I don't even know. I mean we will include it in the show notes, but they made it just for me. WHOA. I have been trying so hard. I had the call yesterday and they were like well, we'll fix that for you. Treasure that. They do not give those out easily. My listeners know I've been trying well because I tagged them constantly. I'm always like showing my data and then, you know, I talk about or er ring probably as much as you do, and I tell everyone it's like my favorite form of technology. That really has been helpful for me determining what I need to do to for me, it's really been my room sleep is always good. My deep sleep was the one that needed work, and so I'm constantly working on that, constantly. Yeah, wow, the show notes will be at I have PODCAST DOT com. Slash episode to eight. One. Hi Friends, I'm about to tell you how you can get thirty dollars off one of the most incredible ways to track your blood sugar levels, see how you're fasting is affecting you, see how your food choices are affecting you and truly take charge of your health. That would be the NUTRICEENTS CGM program if you've been listening to this show, you know that we are a little bit obsessed with continuous glucose monitors, also known as CGMS. Did you know that the majority of chronic illnesses actually stems from an inability to manage your blood glucose levels? If you know how your body is actually responding to different foods, amounts of sleep, stress, fasting, exercise, wine, anything else you're doing in your life, then you can truly achieve your health goals. So, whether that's managing your weight, eating foods that make you feel good, having energy throughout the day, optimizing your longevity, Understanding Your Blood Glucose is key and, for example, you might even realize that your diet doesn't need to be super restrictive, it just needs to be the right diet for you that is sustainable. Here's the problem. True, you can check your blood at the doctor or you can randomly check it with a glucommeter at home where you prick your finger. The problem is that's just a snapshot. It's a single picture of that brief moment in time and if I've learned one thing from wearing continuous glucose monitors, it's that your blood sugar can change a lot, even from minute to minute. You really need to get a sense of how your blood sugar is changing all throughout the day when you wear a continuous Glucose Monitor, which is painless to put on, I promise. I have a lot of videos on my instagram of how to put them on, so definitely check those out. It gives you a picture of your blood glucose levels for fourteen days. And what I love about the nutrients CGM program is it has a super awesome APP that helps you interpret the data and really understand what's going on. In the APP, not only does it track your data, but you can log meals, c macronutrient breakdowns and so much more. It even gives you an overall score for each of your meals based on your body's response, so can really find what meals are working for you. And each subscription plan...

...includes one month of free support from a registered DIETITIAN. Nutrients Dietitians will actually help you identify what you should be paying attention to, what that data actually means. They can really hold your hand. If you're new to the space, or if you're already knowledgeable, then they can provide you even more advanced tips and recommendations. They'll make sure that you adjust your diet and lifestyle to find what you enjoy doing so that you can have long term, sustainable changes. They'll even act as accountability partners on your journey. nutricents also has a private facebook group for members where you can find support from other members and learn about their experience. I love wearing a c GM. I just think it is so profound, even if you just do it once for fourteen days, I think you will learn so, so much. But then, of course lasting sustainable change can take time. So getting a longer term subscription can be an amazing option to consider. NUTRICEENS has six and twelve month subscriptions, and those are cheaper per month, allowing you to not only achieve your health goals but also ensure that you stick to your new healthy lifestyle for the long term. It's helped me realize, for example, how low car versus low fat affect my blood sugar levels, how Berberine has an amazing effect at lowering my blood sugar and so much more. You can get thirty dollars off any subscription to a nutricent CGM program just go to nutricents dot io slash I F podcast and you see cupon code. I have podcasts for thirty dollars off. That's in U T R I S E N s e Dot I o slash I F podcast. With the cupon code. I have podcast for thirty dollars off any subscription to a CGM program there's a reason Cynthia and I talk about C G M s all the time. We Love Them. nutricents is giving you guys access to them, so definitely check this out and we'll put all this information in the show notes. All right. Now back to the show. All right, shall we jump into everything for today? Absolutely. So. This is from knolls high, Melanie and Cynthia. I'm a sixty five year old woman, hundred and ten pounds and I've been fasting since August. I'm doing it for the health benefits. So when I read something like the issues raised by Dr Sarah Valentine below, I don't know what to think. She sounds legit and so do the studies. I'm doing fasting for health reasons, so need to know the scoop. Please address this soon. Thanks, and I love your show. I hope you can shed more light on this and other recent studies. Thanks for all the information. And here's what she says. Myth busting intermittent fasting. Most studies and humans have shown that intermittent fasting doesn't provide any additional benefit compared to other diets, with metabolic and cardiovascular benefits attributable solely to the weight loss during the study. In addition, the most common way of I F ng, by skipping breakfast, results in higher inflammatory responses and increases in measured insulin resistance after lunch. Studies also show that routinely skip being breakfast increases the risk of type two diabetes by a shocking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by and increases all cause mortality by all in all, there's far more science pointing to the benefits of Breakfast and eating dinner on the early side to support better sleep. And then she lists out two different blog posts. One is called intermittent fasting, secret to weight loss or dangerous fad? One is called is breakfast the most important meal of the day? New Science has answers. And then there are links to two of her podcast episodes, episode three six intermittent fasting and episode is breakfast the most important meal of the day. And that is on her what podcast is that? The PALAEO MOM? So I have so many thoughts here. Okay, okay. Well, so to start things off, when her podcast, episode three one published...

...is breakfast the most important meal of the day, came out, or it might have been three, one of those that she links, people were asking about it in my facebook group and she actually co hosts the Paleo of view, or she at least she used to. With my good friends stacy toth so this came up in the group. I listened to the podcast episode and I did a deep dive into what she talked about and so I'm going to talk about all that here. And all of this is not too like argue or, you know, try to discredit or disprove what Dr Valentine is saying. I just think she brings up a lot of good topics and I learned a lot listening and diving into what she was referring to. And then I also did a deep, deep dive into one of the specific studies that she talks about, because her blog post is breakfast the most important meal of the day. New Science has answers that. Is An analysis of a two thousand seventeen study called impact of breakfast skipping compared with dinner skipping on regulation of Energy Balance and metabolic risk. So I was reading that study and it was actually really fascinating study. So I'd love to talk about it anyways. So I'm just gonna talk about all that and and then people Canna, we can see where we go from there. So maybe I'll start with that blog post about the two thousand seventeen study. So basically, in one of her emails I'm going to read what she says about the study and then I'll read what the study actually said. So she says that a two thousand seventeen study used a randomized crossover design to evaluate skipping breakfast versus skipping dinner. Compared to the standard three meals per day. Time restricted feeding, either skipping breakfast or skipping dinner, resulted in slightly higher energy expenditure for the day and while skipping breakfast but not skipping dinner increased fat oxidation, it came at the expense of higher inflammatory responses, a whopping fifty increase in the Post Brandial Homa index, meaning increased insulin resistance and higher blood sugar and insulin levels after lunch. And then she says a recent study of how intermitt fasting affects insulin sensitivity showed that the feeding window didn't really matter. What didn't matter was having the first meal before eight thirty am. That's Dr Valentine's words. So the actual study, what they did was they looked at well, first all, a problem I have with the study. It was it was very short. So people basically did like a day of skipping dinner and a control day and a day of skipping breakfast with a wash out period, and it was only a day of each of these, and so I think that right there is a problem because it doesn't give people time to acclamate to whatever, I F pattern they're doing, because we know it can take the hormones a little bit of time to sort of regulate to a new rhythm. So that's just a little bit problematic starting things off. But that said, there were a lot of good findings in the study. So the participants ate the same, similar macronutrients throughout the days. So one of the biggest things, the biggest takeaway, at least for me, and this Dr Sarah Balentine mentioned this, was those that skipped breakfast, so when they ate dinner they actually burned more fat. So it's a huge takeaway from the study is that the participants who skipped breakfast, so basically they were having a later eating window, they not only did they burn more fat than those that skipped dinner, they burned fat when the other group was burning carbs. So basically, the people who ate all throughout the day, we're burning carbs more and it was the exact same for the people who skipped dinner. So the people who were eating earlier burned the same amount of carbs essentially as those that were eating throughout the day. Compared to those that skipped breakfast and only ate dinner, it's like flipped. They basically burned fat all day. Not all day, but they burned a lot of fat. So they...

...were fat burning for the majority of the day compared to the other group that wasn't, and I just think that that is huge. And so what's interesting is she mentions how the Homa I are at lunch was worse for those that skipped breakfast. And what Homa I r can tell us is it's like she mentioned a measure of Insulin and glucose that can give us a picture of insulin resistance. So it was worse for those who skipped breakfast after lunch. One of the problems about the setup is they didn't test hom a I r all throughout the day. They only tested one data point, which will it was a few different times, but it was basically amount of time surrounding the lunch meal, and what's important to note about that is that's testing the Homa I are at a different timeline for the two setups. So like if you really wanted to make it controlled. I think is I think you would have needed to have tested home I R so that it would match the amount of time into the eating window for both of the two arms, the breakfast skippers and the dinner skippers. I don't know if that's quite making sense, but basically, just like looking at one snapshot, I don't think gives a full picture of the entirety of everything, especially when fasting. Influent sensitivity, twenty four hour glycemia and glucos variability and twenty four hour insulin secretion. We're all similar for all of them. So basically all of that was really similar, but when they looked at this one time point they found a difference. So I don't know that that's actually a full picture of what's going on. And then something fascinating from the study, and I find it interesting that Dr Valentine didn't mention this at all when she talked about the study as even though later in her email, because what we read was from her email. Later in her email she talks about other studies looking at the role of Cortisol and how asking might have a negative effect on people's Cortisol levels and people's stress levels. So this study actually found that those who skipped breakfast had a better stress response. So, while the Cortisol and the twenty four hour cortisol profile was similar between all the groups, those that skipped breakfast, I will quote, they had, it says, overall HRV. So we're talking earlier about or ring. HRV is your heart rate variability and it can be used as a marker of your body stress levels and higher HRV is basically a better stress response. So the study says that overall HRV heart rate variability was higher on the breakfast skipping day than on the dinner skipping day. And it says that the findings of the study argue against a higher sympathetic tone and suggest improved autonomic regulation with breakfast skipping. So the sympathetic part of the nervous system is basically like our fight or flight version of our nervous system and the parasympathetic is the more relaxing, calming part of our nervous system. So this study found that for those who get breakfast, they had a better stress response. They're, you know, less of the sympathetic, more the paras sympathetic and improved autonomic regulation. So they found that skipping breakfast was better for the stress levels, which is the well, Dr Valentine didn't even mention that from the study, and then it contradicts what she says a little bit later about another study on Cortisol. So the study makes this case, and Dr Valentine makes this case, that maybe breakfast skipping is leading to metabolic in flexibility because of that Homa I r score. But what's confusing to me, and I'll be curious to hear your thoughts on this, Cynthia, is it's like, why would we assume metabolic inflexibility based on this one Homma I r score, taking it one point when overall,...

...when we look at the entire day, those that skip breakfast, we're burning more fat, like it like. It just doesn't make sense to me. If they're burning more fat for an substantial amount of time, clearly it's a different message than metabolic and flexibility. So I find it interesting that that's a conclusion that's drawn. Interestingly, what the study concluded. Their final final conclusion was that. And this is also interesting because you can make a lot of conclusions from this study, and this is what I want listeners to understand. The way these studies are handled and it's not even because we'll talk about how they'll be a study and then it gets interpreted in the media or interpreted by bloggers or doctors or scientists or influencers, and you can put whatever spent on it you want. But even the study itself, they often put whatever spin on it they want, like they focus on what they want to focus on. So everything I just told you, you could have concluded so many things. You could have concluded skipping breakfast is better for your stress levels. You could have concluded skipping dinner decreases fat burning like like. There's a lot of things you could have concluded. But whether they concluded a causual role of breakfast skipping for the development of obesity is not supported by the present data. So they basically concluded a negative so rather than saying skipping breakfast leads to more fat burning, they concluded that skipping breakfast does not encourage obesity. And it's a small thing, but it's just it just really shows, I think, what the aim can be with certain studies. So that was my analysis of that study. Honestly, reading it, I was like this makes me want to skip breakfast. Wait, like you'll burn more fat. Oh, I left out the inflammatory response potential. I am so sorry. There's another aspect of the study where they looked at the immune response, and Dr Valentine talks about this, and so it's interesting about here. What they did is they looked at the again. Look, they looked around lunch and they looked at the blood of the participants and they didn't look at the inflammatory response of the blood right then. So it wasn't like they looked at them eating the meal and then they looked for levels of inflammatory markers like aisle six. So they put into the blood either lps, which is Lippo polysaccharite, which is basically a byproduct of gut bacteria that our body registers as a toxin, or they put in Hema gluten in, which is a psychoprotein that causes an immune response in red blood cells. It's kind of like the whole Lectin type thing, and they saw how the blood reacted. So they didn't look at the inflammatory response of the blood right then. They took the blood, they put in something that the immune system that would react to and then they tested to see how the blood reacted and they did find that those who skip breakfast had a more exaggerated inflammatory response when they put in basically a toxin or something that aggravates the blood into the blood, and I don't know enough about immunology to really speak more at length on that, other than to say that I'm not really sure what's going on there and I'm not really sure what the implications are. They concluded that it was maybe because the participants who get breakfast we're burning more fat when they ate, so they had higher levels of fat in their blood and that that could exacerbate the immune response to lps and hemogluten in. So I don't know. Again, it's a thing where I would set it up differently, where I would have that response tested so that it's being tested on the early eaters and the late eaters equivalently, based on how long they've been fasted or how long they've been eating. That wasn't there as well. That was so much and I also have thoughts about her other blog posts, but I'm gonna stop talking for a little bit. Cynthia to have thoughts. I think this really speaks to what happens in the media and many other you know,...

...well intended. I have to believe this is a well intended email and blog posts that were written. It's under the presumption that most people don't know how to read research and it's under the presumption that we aren't going to question what she believes was the takeaway, key takeaways, from this research that was done. And so this is why Melie and I are very committed to really taking the time to thoughtfully look through the research and to be able to say, you know, this actually isn't the case. If you really look at the research, you really look at the variables, there are so many things that impact, you know, the HP A, the Hypothalmi, spituitary access, the stress response in the body. A lot of that could have absolutely nothing to do with meal timing, and so I feel fervently and strongly that this is one of many reasons why there's so much fearmongering about fasting and really we would not be here as a species if it wasn't something that was very along with ancestral health actives. But when you start layering in the stresses of a modern day lifestyle like many of us experience, you know, stress going to work and stress with kids and stress with getting sick and all these other things, adding in additional layers of stress on top of fasting may make it a less than ideal circumstantial choice. But I don't think that the key tenants from that email and from that study were extrapolated in a way that's particularly helpful. In fact, I think it contributes to the fearmongering, mantra and message that we see all over social media from health influencers, et CETERA. And Melanie did a really, really nice job kind of diving into the research and looking at what did actually really show. And so even when I do little I g you know, lives, or I do really short videos, I always say, you know, look at the research. You know, was it statistically significant? You know what were they what was the endpoint they were looking for? So really getting at least somewhat knowledgeable about what to be looking for into question. And really that's what science is doing, is forcing us to question and to consider do we need to look at this differently? But it has always been my experience that fasting and when we look at the bulk of the population here in the United States is one example, it's anywhere from eight to nine percent of the population is metabolically healthy. So hello that's most everyone is not metabolically healthy. Eating less often is not going to hurt you. I think that's the big thing to stress. Like the big takeaway is who benefits from US eating all day long? What industry benefits? You know, the other thing that I like to look at, and Melanie, I'm not sure if you actually looked at this, but I'm always like, who funded the study? Who funded the research that we're looking at to see if there's any biases, because I think that can also be very, very impactful. But this is, you know, trying to throw the baby out with the bathwater, you know, one of those old sayings that my grandmother used to say, that you know, you really have to dig a bit deeper and understand that even people with research background can actually Cherry pick data. It happens super commonly and this is one of many reasons why I think it's important to get savvy, or at least familiarized with basic research tenants and to also, you see something that is outside the norm of how you would normally think about something, like, be humble enough to say no, maybe there's something here I haven't looked at. But I looked at this as well and I have to agree with Melanie that there's nothing to support the key takeaways that Dr Valentine has in that article or in those emails, and I think it's unfortunate because many years ago, I think I did actually follow her, but I got to a point where I had to unsubscribe. But I think on a lot of levels I appreciate when our listeners bring these things to our attention so that we can address them proactively and and so you know, sometimes there's going to be a time we might say hey, we may need to rethink our thought process on a particular area, versus saying, you know, I still...

...feel pretty confident that eating less frequently and not eating large bulluses of food throughout the days ultimately going to improve metabolic flexibility, is going to keep our insulin levels lower, is going to improve those home I r scores that you were referring to. And you know, it just goes to show that even well meaning people can put out cherry picked data, which is what I when I first read this. That was my visceral response. Friends, I'm about to tell you how you can get fifty off a product that has truly changed my life. Do you experience stress or anxiety or chronic pain? Do you have trouble sleeping at least once a week? If you do, trust me, you are not alone. I personally have explored so many avenues for how to have a healthy relationship with stress, and finding the world of CBD oil has been absolutely incredible for that. After doing more and more research, I realized just how incredible the health benefits of CBD are. CBD regulates your cannabinoid system kind of like an Adaptagen, making you feel better. Naturally, it's not addictive, it's not a crutch. Basically it's just helping your body function better when it comes to stress, anxiety, pain and sleeplessness. I take it daily for my mood and the effects are profound. In fact, I even got robbed last year and I went from crying with stress and anxiety to taking some feels and laughing. I said to my mom, mom, see how effective this is due to all of its health benefits. We knew we wanted to partner with a seaweedy company for the PODCAST, but I have very stringent criteria. You guys know this. So many brands approached us and I kept just saying Nope, because nothing fit all of my criteria. I wanted seabedy oil that was full spectrum, tested for purity, organic, made with M C T oil as the carrier and that I actually experienced benefits from. That's a pretty tall order to fill. We said no to a lot of brands and then feels came along and it was meant to be. I personally tried it out and started seeing massive effects on my sleep and stress. Feels is so easy to take. You can just put a few jobs under your towel and you'll feel the difference within minutes. I truly do feel it within minutes. Of course, it is important to remember that CBT works differently for everybody, based on your own unique cannabinoid system, so you might need to work to find your perfect dose. Experiment over the course of a week or so and you may find that you need more or less, depending on the effects that you're looking for. I'm also super grateful because they have an incredible offer for our audience. You can start feeling better with fields. Become a member today by going to fields dot com, slash if podcast, and you'll get fifty percent off your first order with free shipping. That's F E A L S DOT COM slash I F podcast to become a member and get automatically taken off your first order with free shipping. FIELDS DOT com slash I F podcast. When you get that offer, you'll be joining the fields community and you'll get feels delivered directly to your doorstep every month. You'll save money on every order and of course you can pause or cancel anytime. So definitely try it out for the first month with our code for D percent off and see how it works for you and we'll put all this information in the show notes. All right. Now back to the show. It's really interesting because I understand that that home I are. When they measured it around lunch seemed worse on the breakfast skippers, but I don't know how you draw the conclusion that they're becoming metabolically and flexible when they started burning fat and the Control Group didn't and the dinner skippers didn't. And then, interestingly so I mentioned that, it concluded that skipping breakfast was better for your stress. So later on Dr Valentine talks about how I F might negatively affect cortisol levels. Two references at two thousand nineteen study where she says early time restricted feeding altered the dinural patterns and Cortisol. Morning Cortisol was elevated and evening cortisol was lowered. And then she says this implies that this is not an appropriate dietary strategy for anyone with unmanaged chronic stress. So this really confuses me because last time I checked, the...

...court assol pattern that we wanted was higher. Court is all like the natural court is all rhythm is higher, court is all in the morning, lower at night. So the study found that that fasting led to higher court is all in the morning and lower at night. So I don't know, do you have thoughts on that? Like that's what I think we would want to see. Yeah, the Circadian Biology. If you look you actually get a spike in court is all about thirty minutes after weakening and you want to see it ebb and flow throughout the day. But it follows a very commonly and a healthy person follows a common distribution and higher in the morning at Ebbs and flows throughout the afternoon and then it's lower in the evening. And you wouldn't want your court us all to be the opposite. If it was low in the morning, you would be dragging you can barely get out of bed and if it's high at night, then you're wide awake and you can't fall asleep and you can't relax. And so you know, circadian biology is something that I have really gotten to know very well, and so that doesn't seem at all aligned with the way things should ideally be, meaning we want to see a vibrant cortisolve response in the morning. That's what gets us up out of bed. It suppresses Melatonin, gets US moving, and then we want courtisol to be lower in the evening when we're getting ready to go to bed, some of US earlier than later, and we want to see a nice vibrant response with Melatonin. So that doesn't make any sense to me and maybe there's something I'm missing. I've read it so many times. I remember when I heard it in the podcast, since she said that, and I was so confused because I was like well, what do you want to see? Then like I just don't understand well. And sometimes I think some of these individuals, and maybe it's not even Dr Valentine who wrote that, maybe it was an assistant or someone on our team, but the assumption is made that that most people don't know basic science, and so if you understand like very basic science, you would say that doesn't make sense to me, because the normal distribution of courtisol and I look at these labs almost every day. That's what you want to see. I mean it's when it's disregulated, when you've got hypothalamus pituitary disregulation, meaning your brain and your pituitary gland and your court is all or the adrenal access. So it's H P a axis. When that access is disrupted, that's when you'll see an abnormal distribution of court is all throughout the day and into the evening. And so I have to agree with you, although it's interesting when you think about stress, like if someone is going through divorce, they're, you know, doing having like they've lost their job or they're going through a contentious move, you know that might be the time not to add more stress to the body, even if it's a beneficial hormetic stress. But in most instances, you know, people can kind of take their foot off the accelerator and maybe they're doing twelve hours of digestive rest. But I still don't understand how you could say that it's not beneficial. Honestly, when we're looking at the degree of metabolic ill health we have here in the United States. It's almost I actually I'm getting more bold on social media. I was saying on twitter something on the lines like, if you're a healthcare provider and you're, you know, not advising your patients to check their blood sugars or to recommend a glucometer or c GM, and you know, I'm getting a little off on a tangent, we're really doing them at disservice. And so I think the same thing. If you're not telling every single patient to go twelve hours without eating, that's criminal, absolutely criminal. That ties in little bit to one of the podcast episodes that was referenced. She did bring up a lot of topics which I think are good topics for discussion anyways, that there are things we would be talking about anyways. The one that that made me think of was she believes that the benefits of intermitt fasting are often basically all due to Cali restriction and that that fasting is harder than calorie restriction, and I have a lot of thoughts surrounding that. So one is so even if the benefits, because I know this is like an...

...age old debate, or as long as they can be an age old debate, which is as long as I F has been a colloquial idea. But even if the benefits of I F are just due to calory restriction, which I do not believe they are. I believe they activate similar pathways as calorie restriction, but that you can get the benefits without calory restriction. But even if the benefits are just due to calory restriction and people are just accidentally eating less by doing I F, I think it's very hard to get people to do calory restriction normally. So if people can easily quote unintentionally do calory restriction because they're fasting, I see that as a win. I don't have any issue with that. And I think it's also this very reductionistic thinking when people say, Oh, the only benefits are that you've reduced your calories, and I'm like no, that's actually not correct. And so it's an opportunity to really help educate people that there's so much more to the benefits of fasting that people are unaware of. I think will come to it because they want to change body composition or lose weight, but if it were simply about the calories. Then we wouldn't have all this other vibrant research that suggests that there's a lot of benefits that maybe aren't a parent, you know, reduction and inflammation a top of g up regulation all these other things that people sometimes lose sight of. And I think it also speaks to the fact that we have conditioned our patients to believe that they need to be eating all day, all day long, and eating snacks and many meals, and the reality situation is even people who are thin have plenty of stored food in their bodies, you know, stored that that they can access if they're fat adapted. And so there's a lot. There's a lot to unpack here. I'm trying to restrain myself because I could go off on a many different tangents about the fearmongering and the Cherry picking of data that seems to be really prevalent, much more so now than ever before. That's why I thought about this part of it, because how you're saying that doctors should be telling people to go a start amount of time without eating, but there's often responsive it requires calory restriction or it's not sustainable and it's just better to eat all day and I just I don't see that. And so in that podcast she talks about how she speaks specifically about a d F, alternate day fasting, and how it's more difficult than calory restriction. So interestingly, I don't think for me it wouldn't be more difficult than calory restriction. But I do find a D F it does not appeal to me. I think it would be too difficult for me not something that I would like. That said, there are so many studies that have found that not to be the case. So I'll put links in the show notes. But for example, one called alternate day fasting improves physiological and molecular markers of aging and healthy non obese humans. That one they saw no dropouts in six months for people doing a D F. They saw two dropouts in two months for people who were not doing a D F, compared to one drop out in three months of a d F. And then there's one called short term modified alternate day fasting, a novel Dietary Strategy for weight loss and Cardio Protection and obese adults. They found that the compliance on a D F was very high, a six percent, and it was even higher because often in studies they'll they'll do like an enforced part of it where they basically give the people to meals. And then there's like the self done virgin and they actually found that people were more compliant when they were doing it themselves, which is pretty cool. And then there's one called alternate day fasting for weight loss and normal weight and overweight subjects a randomized control trial and they found that people doing a D F had adherence rates of nine percent and that their hunger did not change and they actually the longer they did a d f they felt more satisfied and more full. A D F is probably hard for a lot of people. Like I said, I don't want to do it, but there's been a lot of studies where people find it very easy to adhere to. So I wouldn't make, I don't know, I wouldn't make a blanket statement about it being something that's not practical or not implementable. And then she does have...

...a lot of takeaways about breakfast studies and this claim that the majority of studies show the benefits of breakfast. And I have dived deep into breakfast studies, especially when I was writing what when wine and was Cynthia was talking about earlier with funding. This is where it is shocking the amount of studies that are funded by the breakfast cereal industry. Like it's just shocking. And so there's actually a two thousand thirteen Meta analysis and up unto that point their conclusion was, quote, a majority of Pro Breakfast studies feature biased interpretations, misleading language, improper citations and inappropriate terminology. So basically there's a huge bias in the literature. On top of that there's the healthy user bias. That's the idea that the people who skip breakfast are often the type of people that are engaging in other healthy habits, because we've been told for so long that breakfast it's the most important meal today. Sorry, I said people who skip breakfast. People who eat breakfast t into you know, smoke less, drink less, eat more fiber, eat more micronutrients, be physically active. That can be a misleading thing for all of the studies. And then if you actually look at the studies on skipping breakfast, that's just not what it shows. A lot of the studies show that skipping breakfast people do not overcompensate. They usually end up eating less throughout the day overall. When they skip breakfast, they don't make up for skipping an entire meal, even if they eat like a little bit more at lunch. And I'll put a link in the show notes to my blog post that I did on early versus late night eating, and that was more in the context of fasting. But when I actually looked into the literature on everything and I tried to be as unbiased as possible and I walked away thinking that the best time to eat, it's not what I do, by the way. It's not like late at night like I do, but it did seem to be between like four to seven, like basically like later afternoon to early evening, while the sun is still up. I tried, my heart is, to be as unbiased as possible and I looked at so many studies. Well, I think you're also a Unicorn, like I I lovingly say that, like I think that you know it works for you. You're metabolically flexible, your insulin sensitive, but the average metabolically inflexible individual would probably struggle with like when I think about late night eating when it's dark outside. It's not aligned with the way our bodies are designed to thrive for the average person in that subject. It could be detrimental if it was something they did all the time. But this is when bio individuality really rules and this is, you know, certainly a degree of experimentation. I know when I used to work crazy shifts in the hospital, like eleven am to eleven pm, more often than not you would get a you know, a dinner break in the evening and you would just eat because you know if you didn't eat them you were going to be eat later. But I think it's, you know, really leaning into what works for each one of us. Then the research is helpful. That's one thing I want to respond as a clinician. Research is helpful to guide suggestions and recommendations, but ultimately it's the clinician or the end of one or the patient or the individual really determining what works for them and is in their best interest. I think that's really important. So if you if we get hung up on and I'm just speaking very, very general terms, research is helpful. Research Confirms Many things that we do clinically. Research can also just leave us with more questions, like we need more research done on this area. You know, we know that women there's not enough research done on women, as one example, because there have been a lot of fears about subjecting women to research that our childbearing ages, for many concerns about the potential stratgenic effects, meaning anything that could have potentially happen to their fertility or an unborn child. But I think there's now a push and a demand for not just being exclusive and looking at just at men or...

Menopausal woman, but looking at everyone to get a really good representation of what what the research holds for. I mean that's my feeling, like I'm always looking at it kind of objectively and saying, yes, research is helpful, it can confirm what we need or can cause us to look at different variables that are impacting fasting or metabolic health, but I always think it's important to determine for each one of us what is working or what is not working. I could not agree more. I think bio individuality is so, so key and like I am a late night person. I'm according to Dr Bruce, I'm a dolphin. I have cortisol spikes probably late at night, and so eating late at night really brings down that cortisol. For me it's just really interesting because I honestly think if we could get rid of all of the biases of society and we didn't have this narrative about breakfast and I think if people just objectively sat down and looked at the hormonal profiles of people naturally like, what would they conclude? I don't think you would include that you should eat breakfast because once you wake up, Cortisol's bikes, ajournaline spikes. You have hormones that are releasing fuel from your body. Like it's not a time where your body is asking for fuel. Grellin, the hunger hormone raises a little bit later, not right when you wake up. I don't know, I just want I did a deep dive into the hormonal profile. It was really, really interesting. But then again, there are people that love breakfast and that's what their body wants and that's where, like you said, bio individuality is is key. Absolutely. Yeah, I feel like this was the anti fearmongering episode. I'm also glad you brought that up about the role of women in studies, and one another reason I loved interviewing Morgan Levine. I find that it's the female scientists that are the ones talking about this, like she talks about in her book. You know, some of the problems with anti aging research and how women often historically haven't been as included in the studies and there's definitely a need for more women in studies well, and I think it's it's interesting. Even when I was writing my book and I've got so many references, they're housed on my website because it would have taken up on a twenty or thirty pages in the book. There just isn't enough and we can't compare ourselves to lab animals and we can't compare ourselves to primates. You know, we really do need good researchers really looking at all these variables and, to be honest, you know annacdotally, you know I'm starting to see emerging trends that are coming up and actually I'm doing a Webinar for the Dutch company. So this is a precision analyticals. Dutch tests is a test that I use quite frequently and especially in programs likelistic blueprint, which we're enrolling for in September, and they had asked me to do a very slanted discussion on metabolic health and fasting and nutrition, which of course I'm happy to do and I identified for them. I'm starting to see this triad of women. They are over fasting, over restricting, over exercising, and those are the women I worry about the most in terms of adding in more fasting. You know, it's it's the extremes that we as women don't weather quite as much. And it's not to suggest women can't work hard and work out hard and doesn't mean they cannot fast. But if we're overrestricting everything in our diet, we're you know, we're anti car we're not enough protein, we're eating the wrong types of fats. Were exercising seven days a week during crossfit and started to pick on crossfit. I'm just trying to think of a very intense form of exercise without recovery and then, on top of that you're doing to twenty four or fast a week. Guess what, that's not going to balance your hormones, that's not going to put you in an advantageous position. And so I think that as we are asking and demanding for more research, we're going to see some interesting results that come out of that. And I do think, and I think Ben Bickman was recently talking about suppression of M Tour and how that can impact. I hope I'm not miss speaking. I think he was talking...

...about over ovarian follicule, follicule health. You know, you really start to think about the fact of you know why I always say, like, if you're a healthy woman under the age of thirty five, don't over restrict your food and don't over fast, and so really like that's the kind of research we need to see. You know, what's the net impact of hormatic stress on different stages of life, not just, you know, women still at peak fertil years, but, you know, I paramenopause, a menopause. I think that would be really interesting and certainly very telling, and I'm glad that there are researchers like Dr Levin who are advocating for women and, you know, certainly doing the research there in the thick of things, and hopeful that that will yield more helpful information to guide recommendations and clinical decision making and and of one decision making moving forward. I'm glad there are people like you, like clinicians, you know, working with patients and looking at all of the research and advocating, you know, so strongly for women and all of this so thank you absolutely well. So that was a deep dive. That was a one question I have podcast episode, but we will be back next week with lots of questions. Yes, yes, yes, I knew that was going to happen. When I was reading it took it took me a long time to read through the study. I was like this is gonna be a long episode. So for listeners there will be a full transcript, which I know will be very helpful because that was a deep dive, and links to everything that we talked about, because we talked about a lot of things in the show notes. Those are at I have podcast DOT com. Slash episode to eighty one. You can submit your own questions by directly emailing questions at I have podcast dot com, or you can go to I have podcast dot com and you can submit questions there. And lastly, you can follow us on instagram. We are I have podcast. I am Melanie Avalon. Cynthia. Is Cynthia underscore? They're low underscore. I think that is all the things. Great deep dive into that question and and thank you. You know, listeners keep them coming. You know, it's always enjoyable when Melanie and I kind of dive into the research and and look at different ways of making observations and certainly helping you, you know, Wade through a lot of misinformation that's out there, and there are certainly plenty of it. Yes, yes, yes, all right, while this was absolutely wonderful and I will talk to you next week. Sounds good bye. Thank you so much for listening to the intermittent fasting podcast. Please remember everything we discussed on this show does not constitute medical advice and no patient doctor relationship is formed. If you enjoyed the show, please consider writing your review on itunes. We couldn't do this without our amazing team. Administration by Sharon Merriman, editing by PODCAST doctors, show notes and artwork by Brianna Joyner, transcripts by speech Docs and original theme composed by Leland Cox and recomposed by Steve Sunder. See you next week.

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